Authors: Keerti Dixit, Dr. Umesh Kumar Singh, Dr. Bhupendra Kumar Pandya
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Information and communications technology (ICT) has expanded commercial potential beyond comprehension and has merged completely with organizations. In addition to its many advantages, ICT has disadvantages, such as cybersecurity risks, vulnerabilities, and a lack of adequate administrative access control that cybercriminals might take advantage of. Organizations are becoming more dependent on information security as a result of potential hazards brought on by advances in information technology, each of which has a different critical level based on its likelihood of happening and potential consequences. Methodologies for evaluating information security threats can be either quantitative or qualitative, depending on the Information outcome of their assessment. It is clear that both of the aforementioned choices have a number of fundamental flaws. In order to overcome them, this research paper focused on developing an Integrated Information Security Risk Assessment (IISRA) Framework that would be both more accurate and adaptable because existing approaches are frequently inappropriate and ineffectual due to the ongoing appearance of new sources of risks.
Organizations are placing more and more emphasis on information security. Organizations rely substantially on information technology as digitalization progresses and new technologies are adopted quickly . Many organizations now place a high priority on protecting themselves against information security risks . Assessments of the threats to information security are crucial in preventing and reducing those risks.
Organizations are becoming more and more dependent on technology, which increases the need to secure digital environments. Information security breaches can have a variety of negative effects on a company's operations, finances, reputation, and legal standing [3-5]. Every day, organizations that have experienced data breaches, disruptions, cybercrime, and hacking make the news. Threats and strong opponents are multiplying more quickly than we can devise and employ effective defenses [6, 7].
A vital ingredient of enterprise' risk assessment plan, ISRA assistance in recognizing, measuring, and prioritizing risk in relation to objectives relevant to the organization and basis for risk acquiring [8-10]. The word "risk assessment" refers to a procedure that includes the identification, elimination, or reduction of the probability of incident that can negatively influence the welths of the information structure, subject to an acceptable cost of defense compute that accommodate a risk Assessment, analysis of "cost-effectiveness" parameter, and selection, construction, and testing of the computation of security [11, 12].
In essence, an information risk assessment approach looks at the information risks connected to the organization assets, including an application & infrastructure that supports it. We discover risks and vulnerabilities that are relevant to information asset within the technique. Appropriate controls are chosen based on the likelihood of occurrences and their potential impact. Controls are employed to stop incidents from happening or lessen their impact on the organization [13-15].
II. INFORMATION SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACHES
There are various methods that support the process of risk assessment. Approaches to Risk Assessment can be categorised as qualitative or quantitative.
A. Qualitative Information Security Risk Assessment
Qualitative ISRA is an approach to evaluating security risks that focuses on identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing risks based on subjective judgments rather than on quantitative measurements.
This approach typically involves a subjective assessment of the probability and potential impact of security threats to an organization's assets. It involves assessing risks based on their probability of occurrence and the potential impact they could have on an organization.
These are several advantages of qualitative information security risk assessment, including:
a. Cost-Effective: Qualitative risk assessment is often less expensive and less time-consuming than quantitative risk assessment since it does not require the collection and analysis of large amounts of data.
b. Flexibility: Qualitative risk assessment can be easily adapted to different types of organizations and situations since it relies on expert judgment and does not require a specific methodology or tool.
c. Subjective Evaluation: Qualitative risk assessment allows for a subjective evaluation of risks, taking into account the knowledge and experience of the individuals involved in the assessment process.
d. Effective Communication: Qualitative risk assessment can help communicate the risks to stakeholders who may not have a technical background, allowing them to understand the risks and their potential impact more easily.
e. Early Identification of Risks: Qualitative risk assessment can help identify potential risks early on, allowing organizations to implement risk management strategies before the risks become a significant threat.
f. Risk Prioritization: Qualitative risk assessment enables organizations to prioritize risks based on their potential impact, which can help in the allocation of resources to mitigate the risks more effectively.
2. Disadvantages of Qualitative ISRA
While qualitative ISRA has its advantages, it also has some potential disadvantages, including:
a. Subjectivity: Since qualitative risk assessment relies on expert judgment and subjective evaluations, it can be prone to biases and inconsistencies, which may lead to inaccurate or incomplete risk assessments.
b. Lack of Quantitative Data: Qualitative risk assessment does not rely on quantitative data, so it may not provide a comprehensive understanding of the actual likelihood and impact of risks.
c. Limited Scope: Qualitative risk assessment may not be suitable for complex or large-scale projects, as it may not cover all potential risks and may not provide a detailed analysis of each risk.
d. Limited Comparability: Qualitative risk assessment may not be easily comparable across different projects, organizations, or contexts, as the evaluation criteria may vary depending on the specific circumstances.
e. Lack of Transparency: The qualitative risk assessment process may not be transparent or easily explainable to stakeholders, which may result in reduced trust in the assessment process.
B. Quantitative Information Security Risk Assessment
Quantitative ISRA is a method to evaluating security risks that relies on data and mathematical analysis to determine the likelihood and potential impact of security threats to an organization's assets. Quantitative risk assessment can provide a more objective and data-driven approach to risk management, as it is based on quantifiable data rather than expert judgment alone. It can also provide a more thorough understanding of the potential impact of each risk and help organizations make more informed decisions about risk mitigation strategies.
There are several advantages to using quantitative risk assessment in information security risk management, including:
a. Objectivity: Quantitative risk assessment uses data-driven analysis and mathematical models, providing a more objective approach to risk management.
b. Detailed Analysis: Quantitative risk assessment provides a more detailed analysis of risks, taking into account the probability and potential impact of each risk.
c. Better Prioritization: Quantitative risk assessment enables organizations to prioritize risks based on their probability and impact, allowing them to efforts on the risks that pose the greatest threat.
d. Improved Decision-Making: Quantitative risk assessment provides a more informed basis for decision-making, enabling organizations to make more accurate and effective risk management decisions.
e. Improved Communication: Quantitative risk assessment can help improve communication with stakeholders, allowing them to better understand the risks and their potential impact.
f. Increased Credibility: Quantitative risk assessment can provide increased credibility with regulators, auditors, and other stakeholders, who may require a more rigorous and data-driven approach to risk management.
2. Disadvantages of Quantitative ISRA
While quantitative information security risk assessment has its advantages, it also has some potential disadvantages, including:
a. Data Availability: Quantitative risk assessment relies on accurate and reliable data to be effective, which may not always be available or may be difficult to obtain.
b. Complexity: Quantitative risk assessment can be complex and time-consuming, requiring specialized skills and knowledge to conduct effectively.
c. Cost: Quantitative risk assessment may be more costly than qualitative risk assessment due to the need for data collection, analysis, and modeling.
d. Subjectivity: Even with quantitative data, risk assessment still involves some level of subjectivity, such as assumptions made during data analysis or modeling.
e. Lack of Realism: Quantitative risk assessment may not always reflect the real-world complexities and uncertainties of the organization's environment.
f. Limited Scope: Quantitative risk assessment may not cover all potential risks, as some risks may be difficult to quantify or may not have sufficient data available.
III. INTEGRATED INFORMATION SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT (IISRA) FRAMEWORK
We have developed an Integrated Information Security Risk Assessment Framework to identify and analyze security risk of organizations. We construct the risk matrix for information security during which we identify both qualitative and quantitative risks.
IISRA Framework involves the following steps:
IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
In order to evaluate an organization's effectiveness, the created Integrated Information Security Risk Assessment (IISRA) Methodology was put into practice. We have chosen an organization where vulnerability assessment is a continuous process for the methodology's adoption.
The objective of this study was to identify any conceptual or operational weaknesses in the publicly exposed assets and to provide recommendations for lowering potential risks in the event that these weaknesses were effectively exploited. The purpose of this testing was to determine whether an attacker could exploit security issues in the applications and underlying infrastructure.
In this research paper, we have developed an Integrated Information Security Risk Assessment (IISRA) Framework. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested IISRA framework, we implemented it in a real computer environment and examined the results. The weaknesses of the organization are described in detail. The measuring of the risk magnitude of discovered vulnerabilities in the organization\'s computing network setup is made possible by combining qualitative & quantitative risk assessment to maintain the security level of the organizations. Our research has significantly aided in the identification of flaws that ensure the security of an organization\'s overall system and the most important data. Overall, this research project has provided an integrated method for tackling the intricate problem of information security risk, which today\'s majority of organizations must deal with.
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