Authors: Shweta Ramteke, Prof. Mukul Pande
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Rapid advances in wireless communication devices and systems had a significant impact on the healthcare industry. One important application is to monitor patient's health status anytime and anywhere without restricting the patient's movement. Through the Miniaturizations of sensors and the use of wireless interface to transmit the data recorded by the sensors, health care monitoring can be extended beyond the hospital confines. This project presents a wireless system which enables real-time health monitoring of multiple patients. In health care center patient's data such as heart rate, temperature needs to be constantly monitored. The proposed system monitors the heart rate and Temperature of patient's body. For example, heart rate is measured through a Pulse sensor And Temperature sensor will be used to read body temperature.
A transmitting module is attached which continuously transmits the encoded serial data using Zigbee module. A receiver unit is placed in doctor's cabin, which receives and decodes the data and continuously displays it on LCD Display. Thus, doctor can observe and monitor many patients at the same time. System also continuously monitors the patients’ data and in case of any potential irregularities, in the condition of a patient, the alarm system connected to the system gives an audio warning signal that the patient of a particular room needs immediate attention. Biomedical devices benefit from the rapid growth of wireless technology for measuring Health Parameters. The use of wireless communications in healthcare systems provides great mobility and increase comfort level of patients. The wireless technology for biomedical applications should be suitably selected depending on the data rate and range required for the transmission. With advanced wireless technologies easy access can be made possible and quality healthcare can be provided to people, especially to those residing in the rural areas. Shorter hospital stay and better community care are expected to be the future trend of national health services. Recent advancements in sensor technology wireless communications and information technology in general give opportunities to new models for providing health care and wellness or disease management tools, which enable extended independent living at home and improvement of quality of life for individuals. The biomedical monitoring system discussed in this paper consists of microcontroller, sensors, ZigBee module, power supply and Liquid Crystal Display. The doctor can continuously monitor the condition of the patient and in case of emergency and dangerous situations the system will alert the doctor immediately. The wireless communication link used in this work is a ZigBee based network for communication within the hospital environment. This type of communication is done with ZigBee network topology. Each patient will be given this module and with the help of this module the patient’s health condition is continuously monitored. If there is any change in the condition of the Health parameters, it immediately sends that changed data through ZigBee to the local monitoring system where the main module is connected. The doctor can observe the status of the patient through the computer.
The system consists of microcontroller, Pulse sensors, Temperature Sensor, ZigBee module, power supply and Liquid Crystal Display. In case of emergency and dangerous situations the system will alert the doctor immediately. A ZigBee based network is used for the purpose of doctor to patient communication in the hospital environment. For communicating to a distant location SMS facility is implemented. The emergency situation is indicated to a preset phone number through SMS. This way of communication is actually done with ZigBee network. In a hospital environment each patient is having this module and with the help of this the patient’s health condition is monitored. If there is any change in the normal condition of the health parameters then this module immediately sends that changed parameter to the local central monitoring system in the hospital through ZigBee wireless technology. The same information is transferring a message or SMS through GSM network to the care taker.
A. Modes System Architecture at The Patient End Operation.
The system architecture at the patient end is shown in Figure
The system architecture at the patient end several temperature sensing techniques are currently in widespread use. The most common methods are Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs), thermocouples, thermistors, and sensor ICs. The right one for specific application depends on the required temperature range, linearity, accuracy, cost, features, and ease of designing the supporting circuitry. In this work IC LM35 sensor is used as temperature sensor.
The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensor, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The analog information is converted to digital form with the help of ADC.
Heart beat sensor is designed to give digital output of heart beat when a finger is placed on it. This digital output can be connected to microcontroller directly to measure the Beats per Minute (BPM) rate.
Heart beat is sensed by using a high intensity type LED and LDR. The finger is placed between the LED and LDR. The skin is illuminated with visible (red) using transmitted or reflected light for detection. This circuit made from an infrared phototransistor and infrared LED. The skin is used as a reflective surface for infrared light. The density of blood in the skin will `affect on the IR reflectivity. The pumping action of heart causes the blood density rises and falls. So that we can calculate the heart rate based on the rise and fall of intensity of infrared that reflected by skin. It works on the principle of light modulation by blood flow through finger a teach pulse. If there is any change in the pulses then it is noticed as the change in the heart’s normal rhythm. The controller will get an interrupt at this time, which indicates the malfunction of the heart. Then it sends the pulse count with the patient’s ID to the doctor in the hospital and at the same time it sends SMS to a preset number stored in the microcontroller.
B. The System Architecture at the Doctor End.
The system architecture at the doctor end is shown in Figure
The system architecture at the doctor end Embedded technology is implemented to perform a specified task and the programming is done using assembly language programming or embedded C. The AT89C51 microcontroller is used at the patient end as well as at the doctor end. This is a low-power, high- performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer. It has 8Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8- bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Philips AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.
C. Flow Chart.
At transmitter End our system has Pulse Sensor, Temperature Sensor, Controller (Arduino), ZigBee Transceiver Module. Controller checks whether pulse is detected or not and once it detects pulse it starts counting pulses for specific interval. After completing the timer interval controller coverts that count to pulses per minute and then senses temperature of the body using LM35 Sensor. And once heart rate and temperature is calculated controller send that data wirelessly to Doctor’s End (Receiver side) via Zigbee Transceiver Module.
May be interfaced to various expansion boards (shields) and other circuits. The board has 14 digital I/O pins (six capable of PWM output), 6 analog I/O pins, and is programmable with the Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment), via a type B USB cable. It can be powered by the USB cable or by an external 9-volt battery, though it accepts voltages between 7 and 20 volts. The Uno board is the first in a series of USB-based Arduino boards and version 1.0 of the Arduino IDE were the reference versions of Arduino, which have now evolved to newer releases. The ATmega328 on the board comes preprogrammed with a boot loader that allows uploading new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. inductor current of the converter by regulating the inductor ripple or a scaled version of it within the hysteretic band.
a. 131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
b. 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
c. Up to 20 MIPS Throughput at 20 MHz
d. On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier
At Receiver End systems have ZigBee Transceiver
a. 4/8/16/32K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash program memory
b. 56/512/512/1K Bytes EEPROM
c. 512/1K/1K/2K Bytes Internal SRAM
Module, Controller (Arduino), LCD Display. Controller keeps checking for the data from Zigbee module and as soon as data is received by ZigBee Module Controller reads that and Displays the same data on LCD in specific Format with patient ID which can be monitored by Doctor easily without going to patient’s location or Room.
III. MAIN COMPONENT
A. Arduino UNO
The Arduino Uno is an open-source microcontroller board based on the Microchip ATmega328P microcontroller and developed by Arduino.cc. The board is equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output (I/O) pins that Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM
a. Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler and Compare Mode
b. One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture Mode
c. Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
d. Six PWM Channels
e. 8-channel 10-bit ADC in TQFP and QFN/MLF package
f. Temperature Measurement
g. 6-channel 10-bit ADC in PDIP Package
h. Temperature Measurement
I. Programmable Serial USART
j. Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
k. Byte-oriented 2-wire Serial Interface (Philips I2 C compatible)
l. Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
m. On-chip Analog Comparator
n. Interrupt and Wake-up on Pin Change
2. Special Microcontroller Features
a. Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
b. Internal Calibrated Oscillator.
c. External and Internal Interrupt Sources.
d. Six Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power- save, Power- down, Standby, and Extended Standby.
3. I/O and Packages
4. Operating Voltage
a. 1.8 - 5.5V
B. ZigBee Module
The Zigbee standard is a standard built on top of IEEE 802.15.4 which provides the upper layers for control and sensor applications. It has been designed to be very robust so that it can operate reliably in harsh radio environments, providing security and flexibility. As an open standard, Zigbee is able to operate using items from a variety of manufacturers. It has been designed to be very robust so that it can operate reliably in harsh radio environments, providing security and flexibility. As an open standard, Zigbee is able to operate using items from a variety of manufacturers.
1. ZigBee Alliance
As Zigbee is an open standard it is developed and maintained by an industry alliance called the Zigbee Alliance. This was initially set up in 2002 and since then its membership has grown considerably as the adoption of the standard has increased.
The Zigbee Alliance has three levels of membership:
a. Adapter: The Adapter Zigbee Alliance members are allowed access to completed Zigbee specifications and standards
b. Participant: Participant members have voting rights, play a role in Zigbee development, and have early access to specifications and standards for product development.
c. Promoter: The Promoter membership of the Zigbee Alliance provides automatic voting rights in all work groups, final approval rights on all standards and a seat on the Alliance Board of Directors.
A further advantage of Zigbee Alliance membership is the benefits of the global marketing efforts of the Alliance which actively promotes use of Zigbee standards.
2. ZigBee Basics: The distances that can be achieved transmitting from one station to the next extend up to about 70 meters, although very much greater distances may be reached by relaying data from one node to the next in a network.
The different ISO layers in a Zigbee protocol stack.
The main applications for 802.15.4 are aimed at control and monitoring applications where relatively low levels of data throughput is needed, and with the possibility of remote, battery powered sensors, low power consumption is a key requirement. Sensors, lighting controls, security and many more applications are all candidates for the new technology.
IV. SIMULATION RESULT
This paper stresses the design of patient monitoring system based on ZigBee. The biomedical telemetry system consists of temperature sensor, Pulse sensor, signal conditioning circuit, microcontroller, data cable, mobile phone, LCD display. This is a convenient method to monitor the patient’s health condition. The temperature, heart beat and blood pressure are all sensed by using the appropriate sensors which are placed near the patient’s body that is under investigation. The sensed output is given to A/D converter where the analog signal is converted to digital signal. The digital output is given to microcontroller. The microcontroller delivers the signal for mobile phone ZigBee. ZigBee and GSM networks enable the user to communicate within the hospital networks as well as to a distant place. The monitoring device can be improved by imparting system for measuring more physiological parameters like glucose level monitoring, ECG, Blood Pressure etc.
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