Authors: Ar. Megha Tarsolia, Ar. Satyam Srivastava
Certificate: View Certificate
India has 16% of the world’s population and only 4%of the world’s water resources, which are depleting rapidly. The demand for water is expected to grow from 40 billion cubic meters currently to around 220 in 2025. Water is one of the most important inputs essential for crops. Both its shortage and excess affects the growth and development of the plants, yields and quality of produce. There are numerous methods to reduce such losses and to improve soil moisture. The most important step in the direction of finding solutions to issues of water and environmental conservation is to change people\'s attitudes and habits; this includes each one of us. Droughts are considered natural hazards which also have the significant impact on the sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Droughts can lead to water scarcity and reduce access to clean drinking water. Drought is a natural hazard, known primarily in terms of scarcity or supply deficit of water due to failure of rainfall, deficiency of reservoirs and water resources, resultant failure of crops, and consequently a level of serious socio-economic distress. The study will reduce the climatic risk of drought in the region and will also reduce the risks of lives. Climatic resilience will encourage people towards environmental consciousness.
Water needs no introduction, the importance of this is known to one and all. However, despite water being the basic human need, this precious resource is being wasted, polluted and getting depleted. Every drop of water is precious but we continue to waste it like it is a free natural commodity.
98% of water on this planet is salty and is not fit for human consumption. Out of the 2% of fresh water reserves, 1% is locked up in form of ice in various regions around the world. Hence; only1%oftotal water reserves are available for our domestic & industrial use. Many cities in India and around the world are already facing sever water shortages due to reduced rainfall, man-made climatic changes, reduction in ground water levels, population explosion, industrialization and staggering amount of water wastage because of negligence by users & dilapidated water supply systems. The importance of water in a country’s economic growth should not be undermined.
Water pollution, unavailability of drinking water, inadequate sanitation, open dumping of wastes, loss of forest cover are some of the problems faced by many parts of India. The daily struggle for procuring water, mismanagement of waste water, improper sanitation are common features and are leading to serious consequences on human health and the economy of the country. The situation demands immediate intervention in the management of these rapidly growing problems, especially through an integrated approach for water, sanitation and related issues.
II. WATER CONSERVATION
Water conservation can be defined as:
The parameters of water conservation efforts include:
IV. CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES
Process of conservation may be synonymous of preservation against loss or waste. Briefly stated it means putting the water resources of the country for the best beneficial use with all the technologies at our command. Water conservation basically aims at matching demand and supply. The strategies for water conservation may be demand oriented or supply oriented and/or management oriented. The strategies may vary depending upon the field of water use, domestic, irrigation or industrial use.
A. Rainwater Harvesting
Rainwater harvesting essentially means collecting rainwater on the roofs of building and storing it underground for later use. Not only does this recharging arrest groundwater depletion, it also raises the declining water table and can help in water supply. Rainwater harvesting and artificial recharging are becoming very important issues. It is essential to stop the decline in ground water levels, i.e. prevent sea water from moving landward, and conserve surface water run-off during the rainy season
B. Water Efficient Tap
These taps is a simple device which dispenses a limited amount of water slowly and facilitates a thorough hand wash. In case of piped water supply, every time the tap is opened for a hand wash, an average of 300 - 500 ml of water is utilized. Using these Tap it is possible to have a good hand wash with only 60 to 80 ml of water.
C. Propagation of Dry Garden / Eco Lawns
As a step towards water conservation and propagation of native plant species, drought resistant plantation (plants requiring less water) should be carried out.
D. Soak pit Construction
Water runoff sand water logging are combated by constructing soak pits near water points like hand pumps. This is a sanitation measure and also helps in recharge of ground water.
V. INTRODUCTION TO THE CITY
Jhansi is a prominent city of Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh state. Jhansi grew in popularity during the reign of the Marathas because of the heroics of its valiant queen, Rani Lakshmi Bai. She had valiantly fought against the Britishers during the 1857 revolt. Jhansi fort was built in 1613 and today has a wonderful collection of sculptures that depicts the history of Bundelkhand. There are many sculptures of the 9th to 12th centuries found in the Rani Mahal too.
The museum of Jhansi houses regional antiques like sculptures, manuscripts, paintings, arms and silver, gold and copper coins. Jhansi has a major and Key Road and Rail junction. The National Highway Development Project, initiated by the government of Atal Behari Vajpayee, has sparked Jhansi's development. The North-South Corridor connecting Kashmir to Kanyakumari passes through Jhansi. The East-West corridor also goes through this city, so there has been a sudden rush to infrastructure and real estate development in the city.
Jhansi city is situated between the rivers Pahunj and Betwa between North longitudes 24°11´ and 25°57´and East latitudes 78°10´and 79°25´.It has an average elevation of 284 meters (935 feet)In addition, the city is well connected to all other major towns in Uttar Pradesh by road and railway networks. It is about 415 km from Delhi and 292 km from Lucknow, and the gateway to Bundelkhand. Three national highways NH-3, NH-25 and NH-76 pass through the city. As Jhansi is on a rocky plateau, the temperatures here are extreme.
Temperatures reach as low as 1 degree Celsius in winter; it also reaches a maximum of 48 degrees Celsius in summer. Jhansi has lots of monsoon rains that are used for irrigation purposes. The average temperature in the rainy season lies around 36 degrees Celsius while the average rainfall is about 35 inches a year.
As per the 2011 Census, the total population of Jhansi was estimated at 507293.
B. Present Scenario
Industrialization has been sporadic and this in turn has led to low levels of urbanization. Living conditions are harsh especially for the rural poor who depend mainly on agricultural incomes for sustenance, and are therefore highly vulnerable to drought and failure in cropping systems and loss of employment and incomes. The level of poverty in rural areas has increased since a large number of farmers depend on rain fed agriculture (Planning Commission, 2009 & CSO, 2010). According to the inter-ministerial central team report (Samra, 2008), the water supply is not adequate.
The failure of the monsoon has severely affected the available water in river systems. The resulting diminishing water available in surface water sources as well as depletion of groundwater tables has not only decreased the availability of drinking water for people and domestic animals, but also impacted the natural vegetation and growing grasses (crucial as fodder). Most tribal population inhabiting forests areas adjacent to rivers have no choice but to continue to exploit forests for survival and cause further over exploitation of resources. The repetitive crop failures and depletion of natural resources has led to widespread and increasing trends of migration to urban areas. With the collapse of monsoons and arrival of successive dry years, the inhabitants of city are now facing scarcity of water in almost every season. Urban areas are no better off than rural areas. The expense of securing water has been raised and the resource is treated as a commodity.
Drought is the combined effect of meteorological (reduced rainfall) and hydrological (reduced available water supply) factors. In the UP part of Bundelkhand, drought became evident in 2004-05 with a 25% short fall in monsoon rains. The rainfall deficit increased further to 43% in 2006-07 and 56% in 2007-08, leading to severe (metrological) drought conditions in Mahoba, Jhansi and Chitrakut districts. Except Tikamgarh and Datia districts, drought in the Bundelkhand region of MP commenced from 2006- 07.
VI. CASE STUDY
Traditional methods of water resource management of Bundi city the water crisis that stares us in the face today is our creation. India’s climate is not dry, nor down Lack Rivers and groundwater. But what we do lack is management .With unclear laws, government corruption, and industrial and human waste rendering our vast supply almost useless, the water supply crunch is real and rising. Historically water was viewed as an unlimited resource. Thus, no conventions were laid down to provide it as a basic human right .The existence of life is mainly dependent on water. The availability of ground water in Rajasthan is decreasing steadily. The main reason being decrease in average annual rainfall, excessive exploitation of groundwater and overuse of water in almost every sphere of life. Changing consumer habits increasing demand of water for agriculture and industries, increasing number of nuclear families have all contributed to the deteriorating water availability. Since Independence, India’s primary goals have been economic growth and food security, with a complete disregard towards water conservation. As Indian law has virtually no legislation on groundwater so anyone can freely extract water as long as the water lies beneath his patch of land. Relentless rapid pumping of ground water and subsequent depletion of aquifersisinevitable.Theownersofwellsdonothavetopayforextractingwater, so there is no incentive to conserve or recycle it. Modern industrialization is responsible for the crises as washing machines, flushed toilets, automobile washing, and home gardens need much water.
Use of primary and secondary data, field survey, use of topographical sheets and various statistical methods.
Hadauti region of Rajasthan, which experiences high rainfall, is also not untouched by water shortage. Bundi- an old city of Hadauti is also facing this problem. The geological structure of Bundi is typical as it stands on the confluence of Aravallis and Vindhyans .Aravallis. Here consist of marbles chists while Vindhyans have ferulligenous limestone. The underground layers are a mixed combination of porous and non-porous rocky layers which restricts the recharging process. With steep sloppy and plateau ground having black clay soil and hard underground strata; Bundi since its formation has seen stepwells as a source of water availability. In the princely state of Bundi, stepwells were mainly constructed by the royal family or by the rich ‘seths’. Water recharging in these stepwells occurred in two ways-Firstly, the rain water collected in these stepwells directly as surface runoff and secondly, the walled city had a 40feet wide and 30 feet deep trench surrounding its walled section. The trench had a 10 feet highsafetywallonitsonesidetostopthewastefrombeingdumpedinside.Thiswaterinthetrenchrecharged the stepwells of Bundi city. Till 1956, step wells were the only source of water in the city. There were 33 stepwells and 9 tanks to fulfill the needs of a population of 25,000. In 1959, waterworks department introduced tap connections in the city from stepwells at a cost of rupees seven lacs .Thus started the neglecting of the stepwells. After independence, rapid urbanization, break up of joint family system and too much dependence on the waterworks department led to the neglection of the stepwells thus putting them on the verge of destruction. Till 1975, 2000 gallons of water per hour was pumped out of these stepwells .Fast increase in population saw the emergence of tubewells in Bundi but due to filling of the trench by the erstwhile district administration, these tubewells soon turned dry, resulting in water supply to the city from river Mangli. 24 hour water supply in Bundi till 1982 was restricted to 4 hours per day and from 1998 onwards this came down to an hour per day. 2004 saw water supply in three days. At present, there is water supply for 30 minutes per day and in some parts of the city it is of 30 minutes per 48 hours. Today, many stepwells of Bundi have become waste disposal pits. 12 stepwells have being filled up with garbage. At present, of the 21 remaining, 4 have gone dry and of the17 only 6 have potable water.
C. Causes for the bad Condition of Stepwells
Due to decreasing water supply, voices are raised for connecting Bundi with Chambal .Though the demand seems to be viable but it is going to be an expensive affair as the height of Kota barrage is 250meters above sea level while that of Bundi is 266meters.
By the national parameters of 100 liters of water per person per day (PHED takes only70 liters of water per person per day), Bundi requires 10 mcft. Water per month. Just 18 kms. Away from Bundi, Gararda a misunder construction (almost complete) whichhasaprovisionof170 mcft. Of water reserved for drinking purposes. Looking at this it has enough water to meet Bundi’s demands. The dam is 280 meters above sea level and is built on river Mangli (It is the present source of meeting Bundi’s demands. 8 kms. away from Bundi, there is a anicut which receives rainwater from July to September and seepage from Chambal canals fromNovembertoFebruary).Theanicutis260metresabovesealevel,thusthereisaslopegradientof .009. Releasing water from the dam into the river will raise the water in the anicut and will also help in ground water recharge. Rising water pipe line and treatment plant is already functional from Mangli. Small storages are much more appropriate and effective for groundwater recharge. This is particularly important when such large proportion of agricultural production comes from the groundwater irrigated areas.
VII. WHAT WE CAN DO TO CONSERVE WATER?
VIII. IMPROVE WATER MANAGEMENT
IX. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND AWARENESS
Water problems will not go away by themselves. On the contrary, they will worsen unless we, as a global community, respond and use water responsibly. So, before it is too late, let us all, as individuals, families, communities, companies & institutions, pledge towards using water wisely. Intelligence is not in lavishness but in conservation, so that our future generations can continue to enjoy the blissful feeling and touch of water. The presented study has a more unified scientific way for water resilience strategy. The given methods of gathering data sets will have an impact on understanding the issues and sources of chemical and biological pollutants issues which are posing a threat to water quality. The article stresses the spatial evaluation of water with trans-boundary policy approach for its better quality and quantity management. In developing countries, the issues are mostly among the governing body.
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Copyright © 2024 Ar. Megha Tarsolia, Ar. Satyam Srivastava. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.