Authors: Prof. Rohit Deshmukh , Sudarshan Ingole, Mohit Khune, Shubham lamture, Onkar Kamble, Shreya Jadhao
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Intersection is not only the node of urban road network, but also the key point affecting the operation of the traffic of the whole region. In order to improve the traffic operation efficiency of a signalized intersection, this paper takes Dharmaraj Chowk unsignalized intersection as centre of the project on the present situation, three methods were used to optimize the signal timing of the intersection, including only designing the signal timing of the current intersection, designing the change of the signal timing of the whole line and changing the proportion of different types of drivers. The simulation is carried out by Arduino software. The results show that the traffic operation efficiency can be improved conspicuously by changing the signal timing at the current intersection. By changing the signal timing of the whole trunk line, the traffic operation efficiency can be improved obviously. By reducing the proportion of conservative drivers and increasing the proportion of progressive drivers, the traffic operation efficiency can be improved.
Urban road network is composed of intersections and road sections. The intersections are the node of two or more roads in different directions. It is an indispensable part of the entire urban road network.The intersection is also a key point for the gathering, turning and evacuation of vehicles and pedestrians. The unreasonable design of the intersection may lead to decreased efficiency of the intersection and traffic congestion, which will have a serious impact on people's lives and work . There are many ways to improve the efficiency of operations of the intersection. In order to verify its effectiveness, it often takes a long time and a wide range of traffic experiments. With the appearance and application of traffic simulation technology, the original time-consuming and costly design can be carried out under the ideal state of simulation. Although it is a little different from reality, it can explain the feasibility of the scheme to a certain extent. The importance of intersections in a road section cannot be overstated. If proper traffic control measure is not provided it led to a congestion, conflict points and bottlenecks. So, to prevent this issue, a proper traffic signal is designed which works on real-time problem detections and eliminates the wastage of green time allotted to a phase. It has been observed from the study that the Dharmaraj Chowk intersection in DY Patil road in Akurdi, Pune remains busy because of Educational Schools and Colleges located on it, due to which it has become inadequate to handle the present-day traffic. Therefore, to avoid conjunction of people and traffic increases chances of accidents and delays vehicular movement, the 4- phase traffic signal is designed. The signal timings for traffic signals are designed by following Webster’s method. The design procedure discussed in this chapter include phase design, interval design, computation of saturation flow, determination of cycle time and green time, signal timing diagram. The designed traffic signal is then simulated by using Arduino Software
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
Van Aired, (1995) studied that Green shields, and Van Aerde Car-Following and Traffic Stream Models. In this investigation, the author, has relates steady-state car-following behavior to macroscopic traffic stream models has concluded that the results clearly show that Traffic move models through shooting both macroscopic and microscopic constant-state visitors behavior for a large range of roadway features and traffic requirements.
Satyanarayana, (2012) studied the effect of traffic volume, its composition and stream speed on passenger car equivalents. In this investigation, the author, has relates the safe and efficient movement of the people and goods is dependent on traffic flow, which is directly connected to the traffic characteristics. The volume, speed and density are the three important things in public transportation.
V.T Hamizh Arasan and Krishnamurthy, (2008) studied the complexity of the vehicular interaction in heterogeneous traffic. In this investigation, the author, has relates the PCU estimate, made via microscopic of simulation, for the exceptional varieties of cars of heterogeneous traffic, and has concluded that the results clearly show that the PCU price of an automobile tremendously alterations with trade in traffic quantity and width of roadway.
Ahmed Al-Kaisy, (2005) studied that developing PCE factors for heavy vehicles on freeways and multilane highways during congestion. In this investigation, the author relates to the mechanism of heavy vehicles’ behavior during congestion and has concluded that the results clearly show that the effect of heavy vehicles on traffic stream behavior under free-flow condition.
Lum K.M, (1998) studied that traffic volume and travel time. In this investigation, the author has related speed-flow relationships for radial and ring arterial roads and has concluded that the results clearly show that special reference to the characteristics with traffic flow and the recommended speed-flow models developed using travel time–density relationship.
Marwah and Bhuvanesh, (2000) studied that level of service classification for urban heterogeneous traffic. In this investigation, the author has related the traffic simulation model, model has been successfully calibrated and validated for the urban heterogeneous traffic flow conditions on the Kanpur roads and has concluded that the classification level for the urban areas especially which re heterogenous.
E. Elangovan, (2003) studied the Traffic Flow Characteristics using Probe Vehicles. In this investigation the author has relates the large-scale transport infrastructural enhancements are carried out in urban areas and has concluded that the results clearly show that the based on the average speed prevailing at work zone, capacity of the section could be estimated from established speed flow relationship.
Bhaskaran Raman, (2004) studied that Road transportation systems for developing regions. In this investigation the author has relates the Indian roadtraffic the problems, like congestion, unpredictable travel-time delays and road-accidents, are taking a serious shape and has concluded that the results clearly show that the presence of lane system, relative speed and type of vehicles, presence of freeways, orderly traffic.
III. PROBLEM STATEMENT
This study was conducted to analyse and evaluate the performance of unsignalised intersection. Akurdi is one the key urban area in PCMC because the population in the area is above 2.5 lakh. At newly renovated intersection of ‘Dharmaraj chowk’ near Akurdi railway station, on D.Y. Patil road which is major road that connects to the express way so the traffic is more The unsignalised intersection was identified as two way stop controlled unsignalised intersection (TWSC) where the traffic flow was controlled by stop rule. For a TWSC intersection, the stop control approach are referred to as the major road approaches
There is two under passes designed, near the intersection engineering colleges on both side of railway line are located. And, the vehicles travelling on road have no safety measures while turning on crossing intersection. And road is having bigger traffic jams and the number of conflicts is increasing day by day.
So analysis of the intersection in terms of design and other aspects is necessary to have a fluent flow of traffic, and this analysis is also important to overcome traffic accidents, conflicts by properly designing the intersection.
A. Checklist For Existing Roads
IX. TRAFFIC SIGNAL DESIGN ON DHARMARAJ CHOWK
The conflicts arising from movements of traffic in different directions is solved by time sharing of the principle. The advantages of traffic signal includes an orderly movement of traffic, an increased capacity of the intersection and requires only simple geometric design. However the disadvantages of the signalized intersection are it affects larger stopped delays, and the design requires complex considerations. Although the overall delay may be lesser than a rotary for a high volume, a user is more concerned about the stopped delay.
B. Phase Design
The signal design procedure involves six major steps. They include the (1) phase design, (2) determination of amber time and clearance time, (3) determination of cycle length, (4)apportioning of green time, (5) pedestrian crossing requirements, and (6) the performance evaluation of the above design. The objective of phase design is to separate the conflicting movements in an intersection into various phases, so that movements in a phase should have no conflicts. If all the movements are to be separated with no conflicts, then a large number of phases are required. In such a situation, the objective is to design phases with minimum conflicts or with less severe conflicts.
This is often guided by the geometry of the intersection, flow pattern especially the turning movements, the relative magnitudes of flow. Therefore, a trial and error procedure is often adopted. However, phase design is very important because it affects the further design steps. Further, it is easier to change the cycle time and green time when flow pattern changes, where as a drastic change in the flow pattern may cause considerable confusion to the drivers. To illustrate various phase plan options, consider a four legged intersection with through traffic and right turns.
For Dharmaraj Chowk we are proposing 2 types of phase designs which we believe is suitable for the intersection
C. Two-Phase Signals
Two phase system is usually adopted if through traffic is significant compared to the turning movements. Non-conflicting through traffic 1 and 2 are grouped in the second phase.
However, in the first phase flow 7 and 8 offer some conflicts and are called permitted right turns. Needless to say that such phasing is possible only if the turning movements are relatively low. On the other hand, if the turning movements are significant ,then a four phase system is usually adopted.
through traffic 3 and 4 are grouped in a single phase and non-conflicting
F. Cycle Time
Cycle time is the time taken by a signal to complete one full cycle of iterations. i.e. one complete rotation through all signal indications. The way in which the vehicles depart from an intersection when the green signal is initiated will be discussed now. As the signal is initiated, the time interval between two vehicles, referred as headway, crossing the curb line is noted. The first headway is the time interval between the initiation of the green signal and the instant vehicle crossing the curb line. The first headway will be relatively longer since it includes the reaction time of the driver and the time necessary to accelerate. The second headway will be comparatively lower because the second driver can overlap his/her reaction time with that of the first driver's. After few vehicles, the headway will become constant.
While observing the site, we came to know the following problems:
Congestion occurs due to four basic reasons for instance environment, mechanical, human, and infrastructure. Quantitative and qualitative both types of congestion indices have been discussed, suggested by the afore-mentioned researchers. Various congestion data collection methods have been explained which will be useful in the selection of a suitable technique for Indian conditions. Congestion measurement criteria can be adopted based on available budget by adopting speed based or LOS based matrices.
Ridesharing emerges an important role with high efficiency in the use of existing assets such as personal vehicles. Recently the role of this increase most of the popular cities. Ridesharing is a new point-to-point transport model, and has seven features:
1) Installation of Traffic signal at the intersection helps ease out the congestion at peak hours 2) Installation of traffic signal helps in the flow of traffic without any collisions like pedestrian accidents or right-angle collision of two vehicles 3) Traffic signs are seen at all times in all weather conditions at day and night 4) Traffic handled the traffic at regular intervals without any interruptions 5) This project is proposed to developed less traffic jam at intersection. 6) Main conclusion of our Research is that Intersections are well signalized for better movement of vehicles at Intersections.
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Copyright © 2023 Prof. Rohit Deshmukh , Sudarshan Ingole, Mohit Khune, Shubham lamture, Onkar Kamble, Shreya Jadhao . This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.